Does the name...
Does the name Pavlov ring a bell?
This is funny because it is an allusion to Ivan Pavlov's famous experiment where he rang a bell to make a dog salivate. The statement "does X ring a bell?" is colloquially used to call to mind something. The statement makes reference to the experiment, but the thing that is unusual about this particular use of the phrase is that the experiment is what is being called to mind, and this statement is usually used to bring to mind something other than Pavlov's experiment. This is a failed expectation on the part of the listener.
In actuality, Pavlov also is quite a nut case who liked cutting apart dogs, however our society remembers that he rang a bell and a dog salivated.